Thoughts On Ancient History
Rome was an Etruscan colony, ruled by an Etruscan dynasty until the last king was done away with and the Republic founded. Little is known about the Etruscans. They migrated to northern Italy in the Late Bronze Age around the time of destruction of Troy by the Mycenaean Greeks. Part of the founding myths of Rome was the story of how some of the Trojan aristocrats escaped to Italy and associated with the Patrician class. The Kelts eventually invaded Italy, breaking the power of the Etruscan league of city states and besieging Rome, which is the origin of the traditional hatred of those northern barbarians. At that time some of the Patricians evacuated to relatives in the nearest Etruscan city and many more considered abandoning Rome to the invaders, who were successfully expelled and eventually, after several centuries of intermittent wars, completely conquered.
During the formative stages of Roman society Rome was the center of the Latin people and became the largest city-state in Italy in part by admitting wealthy citizens from other city-states who intermarried with the wealthy Patricians. Roman religion and customs were influence by the Etruscans and the Greeks for the most part. The Greeks had literature, a custom the Romans admired and adopted. The Etruscans did not but seem to have contributed heavily to Roman religious mysteries nonetheless.
At the same time in the Late Bronze Age as the Etruscans settled Tuscany the Greeks also founded many colonies in Italy. The cryptic surviving examples of Etruscan writing are largely undecipherable but thought to be Luvian, the language group of western Anatolia, while Latin, Greek, and the other Italian languages were Indo-European. There was another more alien society that colonized the western Mediterranean at that time, the Phoenicians, known as the Punic people to Rome.
Phoenicia was the coastal city-states of Lebanon who were ethnically Canaanite. You might be familiar with them as the bad guys in the Old Testament. They practiced a polytheistic religion as did the Romans, Greeks, and Etruscans. There seems to have been some cultural overlap with the cult of Apollo, a central god of Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans, but referred to generically as the cult of Adonis, which translates as The Lord in Semitic languages such as Aramaic, the early written language adopted by both Assyrians and Jews eventually due to its prevalence in trade. However, the Semitic and the Hellenic cultures were radically different, at least by the time of written history.
Written history began with the Greeks, namely Herodotus and Thusydides. History is an advancement over mythology in that it purports to be a secular and factual report of events in the form of a written story, a radically new idea only made possible by the development of philosophy, the art of thinking about thinking, which was a unique Greek idea. Philo, love of, sophy, arguing.
Educated Romans in the early stages of the Republic so admired the intelligence of Greek culture that during a political crises they sent a committee to study the constitutions of Greek city-states and were ordered to report to the Senate so that Roman law could be improved. They consciously theorized about politics and adopted a basic set of laws designed to balance the powers of the underlying forces in society, aristocracy, democracy, and monarchy. Having rejected monarchy, they retained their dual executive but settled the conflict between the upper and lower classes, aristocracy and democracy, the Patrician and the Plebeian, by dividing the powers of the courts and military authority between the two. There also existed the Equestrian Order composed originally of all citizens wealthy enough to equip themselves as cavalry, which was mandatory to both classes, and formed the basis of Roman political culture in the early Republic. The adoption of a self aware view of politics separated somewhat from religion was the origin of secular government.
Punic society was not evolved in that way but retained more of its pre-secular original form. While Roman historians compare the ruling council of Carthage to the Senate, that was only a superficial comparison. The Shophets of Carthage had a very different and alien worldview.
Carthage was a colony of Tyre. While Tyre and the other original Punic city-states were conquered by the Assyrians, then by the Persians, and then by Alexander and his Hellenised Macedonians, Carthage remained independent. They were thus able to assume complete hegemony over the western Punic colonies. A long series of wars erupted between the Greek city-states of Sicily and the Punic city-states.
By the time of Alexander Greek society had begun to develop a unified culture based on the promotion of higher learning, philosophy and history, by the rich and powerful. Alexander himself was tutored by Aristotle and likely read Xenophon, whose history of The Ten Thousand illustrated the total military superiority of Greek military formations over the Persian military system.
Meanwhile, Punic society was much more based on commerce, most infamously, the slave trade. Punic merchant ships operated in the West in areas controlled by tribal people, meaning people without organized city-states. The warlike Kelts of Gaul were often in close partnership with Punic merchant princes who were able to use their colonies to established armies in Gaul and Spain. When Carthaginian warlords made war in Sicily they followed the customs of the Lavant, where we find the most horrific stories of destruction from Jerico, to David, to the Assyrians, to the Persians. It was from the Assyians, presumably, where they got the custom of crucifying prisoners, which became the common punishment of slaves adopted by the Romans.
Before Rome could finish the eternal project of subduing the Guals, as they called the Keltoi, they were confronted by the aggression, the culture of piracy, and ambition of Carthage. Three wars were fought, including a direct invasion of Italy by a combined army of Carthage and Galic mercenaries which threatened the existence of Rome. Final victory involved the complete destruction of the city of Carthage. They were wiped from history, having no written history of their own to show for centuries of presence in the area.
Then Greek city-states were punished for the invasion of Italy by King Pyrus and Magna Grecia was added to the growing empire. Rome was then able to turn its full attention to the ancient enemy, Gaul, after a massively destructive series of civil conflicts, civil wars, the first great Germanic invasion, and slave revolts in Italy. Pompii subdued the East, and Caesar conquered Gaul and overthrew the Republic, which was basically overwhelmed by the resultant corruption caused by its own success. The new incarnation of Rome, the Empire, was then able to complete the destruction of the barbaric Celtic society and turn its attention east to the Lavant, where they took their turn at trying to subdue the Jews.
Since the theme of this essay is the historic Roman tendency to adapt aspects of foreign cultures there are two or three glaring exceptions. The first and most obvious was their effort to totally wipe out Punic culture in the western Mediterranean. They seemed to have been quite successful because only the barest outline is known about it. For example, we know that Carthage was extremely pious in its practice of infant human sacrifice, Moloch and the Fiery Furnace, based both on Roman reports and archaeological evidence. Rome had for the most part abolished ritual human sacrifice, except for the dedication of victims in the arena to Mars, a practice they adopted from the Capuans, a near neighbor and failed Etruscan colony that was a little more violent than Rome. The Spartacus slave revolt happened during the time after Roman and Capuan Patricians had intermarried and introduced the horrific custom to the Latins.
2) Imperial Rome
While the Punic Carthaginians were severely suppressed after their final defeat, Rome did not carry forward the grudge when they entered the Levant. However, their grudge against the Gauls was much deeper. Caesar outlawed the Druids, as they were the one class of people, being holy men, who could travel unmolested among the tribes and foment revolt. As evidenced by horrific archaeological finds in Britain where hundreds of local villagers were sacrificed and stuffed in a tunnel as the Druidic forces retreated east from the Legions the Roman stories of horrific human sacrifices in Gaul were probably not exaggerated. Particularly, the Galic practice of burning people at the state, and on special occasions burning groups in massive wicker effigies shaped like a man, did not set well with the Romans. Burning at the stake somehow did happen to survive the Roman conquest, with a slight twist on its religious significance. However, the ritual cannibalism that accompanied Galic human sacrifice did vanish, except in fairy tales of witches eating children.
We should consider how it was that Rome was so successful in its campaigns of cultural obliteration against the Drudic cult and against the Carthaginian culture. The best explanation is the absence of any written tradition. The Gauls were at best only semi-literate. They used writing only occasionally and all their religious, legal, and historic tradition was memorized by Druids. Punic culture, the heirs of the original inventors of the alphabet, only seemed to have used it for book keeping purpose. No literature survived, nor is there any mention of anything written in the Punic tongue. The only case I know of an ethnically Punic writer was the philosopher Zeno, founder of Stoicism, who is only known to us because he wrote in Greek. It is interesting, however, that his philosophy was adopted by much of the early Imperial Roman ruling class.
It is important to realize just how alien the Phoenicians were to the Greeks and the Romans. They seem to be unique in history, an advance commercial society without written literature, whose religion was based on something we consider so horrifying, human sacrifice. They could navigate oceans and had enough understanding to build large complex cities, which could withstand relentless tidal forces, but were uninterested in writing about it. They did not have any written literature but had invented the most efficient system of writing. It simply did not interest them.
This is particularly strange, considering that other Semitic cultures, the Judaic, the Aramaic, the Syrian, all had writing and literature. It was the Assyrians who pioneered writing mythic epics and great brags by various famous generals. They even had written laws. The Jews carried that tradition forward with the Old Testament, etc. All that was overshadowed by the Hellenistic culture imposed by Alexander’s generals, who established three empires where Persia once ruled. Politically, the Syrians did not recover from those multiple conquests, but their religion did survive until Christian times, and it was very similar to the Phoenician religion.
One wonders, what became of the Phoenicians? The answer is that a significant number must have been absorbed by the Jews. Judea was conquered by the same forces that swept over their neighbors. The Jews were able to survive and adapt, in spite of the fact that their fanatical monotheism was so objectionable to their polytheistic neighbors. It was considered a form of atheism because it denied all other gods and condemned foreign customs. A famous example is the treatment of Jezebel for introducing her father’s Phoenician religion, which included human sacrifice and temple prostitution.
I have had much to say about the significance of alphabetic writing, but there is another great invention that ushered in the Iron Age in the cradle of civilization, the invention of money. The idea of money is older than money. The notion that beads and seashell may have had trade value during the stone age is interesting but insignificant compared the use of ingots of copper, tin, their alloy bronze, silver, and especially gold as trade goods among city-states. While only serving as money among merchant princes and kings it gave one king in eastern Anatolia a big idea, small change. The first proper money was a rare form of Electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver found only in eastern Anatolia. This novelty item was the raw material for the first known coins in the Seventh Century BC.
Coins began to circulate in neighboring city-states. Soon someone discovered the secret of Electrum and invented counterfeiting. Coins began to appear that were more watered down with silver than the original naturally occurring blend. Eventually, pure silver predominated. Interestingly, these coins were first found in the region where King Midus, popularized by Herodotus, had his famous hoard of gold. Was his magical touch merely the invention of counterfeiting? We will never know. Somehow or other Coesus, king of Sardis, who was likely related to Midus, became the wealthiest man in the world, which attracted the attention of Persia.
The invention of money streamlined the operation of the city-state. The ruler could not only stimulate trade, he could tax it down to the micro level, the individual. Formerly taxes could only be paid in kind and everything was bartered. If something served the function of money in some local market, it was only a matter of temporary convenience. Money changed all that. The next big invention was charging interest. A magnate could front money to a merchant. This may have first been done by discounting the promissory note, likely on a clay tablet. For the commercially deficient, discounting a note means giving some amount lower than the amount written on it, the amount promised to be repaid. Interest is like rent for using money. Before the invention of money rents were collected from peasant farmers in kind. Now money could be rented. That is an entirely different world.
The three things that constitute the precondition for the existence of the modern world are simplified writing, in the West the alphabet, the development of advanced literature in the form of history, philosophy, and fiction, and the invention of money. I have not had much to say about fiction because it is only tangential to history. The first fiction came about at the same time as history in the form of the writing down of oral traditions, which soon became a conscious form of invention. History was quite the opposite. Fiction, while at first based in truth, was known to be made up stories. History, while at first sometimes based in tall tales and rumors was an attempt to find the truth, even though the original purpose of both might be seen as propaganda. Both are significantly different than sacred writing that purport to be about the actions and powers of gods or to be the word of God.
I might add that the invention of an efficient form of mathematical notation sometimes falsely called Arabic numerals, which were actually first used in India at the time of the Persian Empire in the Sixth Century BC, is also significant. (Attributing anything other than mass murder, enslavement and institutionalize rape to that abhorrent Dark Ages death cult is a great mistake. Everything Islam had beyond goat herds and nice horses was taken from Roman and Iranian culture. And we can clearly see from Egyptian murals that Arabian horses existed before Arabs were even know to exist.) At least it proved to be very significant only after the system was adopted in the West much later. Mathematical notation is simply a form of writing and should be seen in the context of the original simplification of writing.
Getting back to Rome, the other main group which the Empire tried to obliterate, but failed in doing, was the Jews. They were early on expelled from the city proper. At different times many things were forbidden. Nero expelled the philosophers, as did Flavius Domitian. Nero, a notorious pervert and weakling who had his own mother murdered supposedly deeply resented the holier than thou attitude of the Jews and early Christians, who were correctly recognized as a Jewish sect, and found horrible ways of killing them, especially the Christians.
The resentment or maybe the lack of diplomatic tact of Caligula and Nero toward the monotheist Jews induced them to rebel. After Nero’s death Flavius Vespasian won the civil war for the hearts, minds, and pocketbooks of the Praetorian Guard and after suppressing the Galo-German revolt, was able to finish the reduction of Jerusalem, destroying the second temple. However, the story of early Christianity only enters history at this time with the Histories of Tacitus. He first recognizes and attempts to explain the difference between Jews and Christians. He does this in the context of explaining the fall of Nero and the rise of Flavius Vespasian.
The rise of Vespasian is the beginning of Christianity in history. The famous political prisoner or slave of his son Titus, Flavius Josephus, also has a lot to say about Christianity. Since Jesephus was a political prisoner Jewish tradition says that he was a traitor who lied, especially about his own exploits, citing the similarity of his own story of his personal survival to the suicide pact of the Macabees. It is claimed that Jesephus invented Christianity. Further indirect evidence for the origins of early Christianity comes from the fact that a Flavian woman is supposed to have founded the first Church in the vicinity of Rome sometime shortly after the sacking of Jerusalem. Tacitus, however, attributes an earlier date mentioning Pontius Pilate. He also tells an interesting story of the widow of a Roman General in Britain who was murdered at Nero’s orders. This woman was a Christian and refused to ever stop dressing in morning, against Roman custom wearing black for the rest of her life. We recognize her behavior as being similar to a nun.
The origin of Christianity might be a little mysterious, but its doctrine is well known. First, it rejects the Old Testament, explicitly. Second, it calls on people to “render unto Caesar that which is Caesar’s to to God that which is God’s”, which is an endorsement of secular authority and a condemnation of Caesar worship, which was a compromise for surviving Jews. That is why Jews claim Christianity was invented by Josephus. Most significantly, Christianity is open to all people, while Judaism is only for a hereditary group, the Chosen People of God. There is some modern disagreement of the possibility of conversion, but the state of Israel uses modern genetic testing to determine if would be immigrants are indeed members of the ethnicity, modern and scientific. That is much more scientific than anything done by the German National Socialists.
The doctrine of Christianity was not determined until a group of bishops got together and decide which stories were holy scripture and which were false. The doctrine also solidified the idea of God and Salvation being available to all people. After Christianity finally became the official religion of the Empire the Jews, who revolted very violently, mass murdering all non Jews and wiping out a legion or two in eastern Empire, they were expelled again to Babylonia, which was again under the rule of Persians. This time, since Christianity had a firm grip on power, it was all Jews who were expelled for rebellion and for being overtly anti-Christian.
The story of the survival of the Jews from obliteration by Rome, as opposed to Carthage and the Druids depended on two factors. The first was the importance of their holy writings which allowed them to maintain their culture and religion where ever they traveled. The second was the availability of a place to go.
Babylon was the location of their “captivity” by the Persians. The original Persian Emperors would settle conquered people they considered problematic. The Jewish ruling class was settled in Babylon and the Jewish soldiers taken into their forces were stationed in lower Egypt, Ethiopia. Romans often used a similar policy, settling Sarmatian cavalry in Britain so they could not cause trouble or desert. The Jews second exile to Babylon must have been convenient for a large portion of the Jewish population because many of them still lived there during the Roman era.
Jewish tradition regards the Persian Emperor Cyrus as a savior because he eventually rebuilt the first temple and let them return home. Persians took power from the Medes in a revolutionary war which included the founding of a uniquely Persian monotheistic religion based on the eternal war between the forces of Good and of Evil. A theme which deeply influenced the Jews and thus the later Christians. In fact a major difference between Christianity and earlier Jewish messianic movements is the primacy of the conflict between good and evil, rather than merely the usual saving of the Jewish race from their oppressors. I find this Jewish veneration of Cyrus a little odd since this was the same Cyrus who, when he defeated the Jewish forces paid a bounty for circumcised penises of which he collect such a large pile that he proclaimed that now only women remained in the region and built a monument in the shape of a cunt to commemorate the battle.
3) The Dark Ages
A lot of interesting things happened from the Seventh Century BC to the Third Century AD. The alphabet was perfected from Italy to India. Money was invented. Sardis fell, as well as Jerusalem, and the tribal feudalistic Persians discovered the benefits of other people’s money. All of that in the backdrop of an eternal war between Good and Evil. I don’t think politics has changed much in that regard. Greeks sure thought about it a lot.
Greece barely survived Persian conquest. Plato and Aristotle each elaborated two opposite worldviews, the other worldly ideal versus the logical and natural ways of viewing reality. The way of natural science and logic won the day for a while with Alexander’s conquests, with military precision. Rome eventually dominated the Hellenistic world and the Barbarian west. Rome was adaptive, maybe too adaptive. Its original creed of civic virtue faded. The ruling class became more sophisticated, often adopting some version of Platonic, Aristotelian, Epicurean, and Stoic philosophy. The masses succumbed to many new alien religions. The Syrian version of the same Semitic cults that dominated Phoenicia. A Persian warrior cult, Mythrainism. Finally a religion of a defeated people, a religion of slaves and women, Christianity, replaced the Roman worldview of civic virtue and military might.
But all their mortal enemies of the early days were conquered or expelled. Then the German migrants arrived, some already converted to a now extinct form of Christianity, Arianism, after Arias a Greek missionary who translated the New Testament into Gothic Runes in the Gothic language. That happened at a time when Rome was under attack from the East by the latest version of the Persian empire. Civil War in the West weakened them to the point that pagan Germans, the Franks and then the Saxons, were let in. The Dark Age fell on the West. Italy was forced to accept a settlement with the Gothic invaders. For a few centuries the Eastern Empire tried to reconquer Italy and North Africa but failed. Then a new religion burst on the scene, Islam, claiming to be the latest truest version of the religion of Abraham, as I like to put it, Judaism on Acid.
Like all fresh new forms of violent insanity pretending to be one and only true religion, Islam initially killed all who would not submit to the ravings of Mohammed. The Muslim Arabs mass murdered, enslaved and raped all the Arab Christians, Arab Jews, Arab Sabbateans (messianic Jews) and Arab Polytheists. They expanded, repeating the same treatment to non Arabs, until someone got the bright idea of letting Christians and Jews pay a tax instead. That was a very savage form of “statism” up to that point. Islam then graduated to the level of a totalitarian political ideology pretending to be a religion. I suppose it was pure greed and lust that caused the change because Muslims were exempt from the special tax but still allowed to rape at will. Eventually they absorbed all of North Africa, the Persian culture zone, the Levant, and Anatolia. The Islamic invasion Spain marked the beginning of the Middle Ages.
Meanwhile, in the West the Roman Catholic church established its authority by converting the Germanic feudal kings to Christianity. A semblance of society was rebuilt in a shattered image of the late Roman system. The Frankish King drove the invaders from France, which led to a slow process of reconquest in Spain. They also saved the Pope from being tossed out by Eastern Imperial forces, which resulted in an attempt to recreate the glory of Rome in the form of the Holy Roman Empire (of German kings and princes) in West.
The reason they called it the Dark Ages was because the illiterate German hoards did not write history. The only surviving records in the West are from a handful of monks. During that era the local Kings, even if they nominally adopted Christianity, were more interested in somehow reviving trade so they could tax it. There was a problem with both Christianity and with Islam. Neither was business friendly when followed strictly. Charging interest was seen as the sin of usury. This induced both Germanic Kings and Princes and Islamic Sheiks to permit Jews to do business in their lands.
The Jews who survived the initial Islamic onslaught and paid their taxes were allowed to do the things that were beneath a good Muslim or even sinful. Islam is a warrior cult based on slavery. Jews dominated the slave trade. The Jews who could avoid the strict enforcement of Cannon law and avoid being burnt at the stake in the West were allowed to do the things that good Christians considered sinful. They were sometimes invited into some lands to stimulate commerce and protected from the clergy by the king’s law. This is not a story of the Islamic zone, where the Jews dominated the lucrative slave trade but of the West where Jews entered the market place in a more normal way.
There is a word for Jews in the West, Ashkenazi, which I suppose is Hebrew for Germans. Because of the meticulous concern that the state of Israel has for the ethnicity of folks, researchers have determined that the Ashkenazi Jews are a different breed from the others. You see, strict Jews only allow the children of a Jewish woman to enter the tribe, that being a more certain indication of pedigree. That practice was not strictly followed in the West in the Dark Ages. According the the mitochondrial DNA about 40% of all Ashkenazi are derived from four individual Western women, and most are not Jewish at all in that regard. However, they have identified genetic markers on the Y chromosome that are considered Jewish, which lets them slide. I suppose that is due to the historic fact the the modern state of Israel was founded mostly by Ashkenazi Zionists and refugees from Europe at the end of WWII. If they followed the strictest rules of Judaism their new etho state would not exist. This is very reminiscent of the arbitrary rules sometimes used to determine who qualified as Volk Deutsch in Gross Deutshcland under the Third Reich, except genetics is more scientific and clear cut.
As to who the Jews of Spain and Italy during the Dark Ages were and where they came from I have no knowledge, but they must have derived from a very small gene pool for such a high percentage to be derived from the same four female converts. The prevalence of certain genetic defects must be related to the small size of the original gene pool. The most interesting defect is one that increases the production of fat in the brain, increasing certain kinds of intelligence which seem to be related to the professions pursued by successful Western Jews through the ages. This mutation comes with a cost, being deadly when it occupies all the alleles. The supposed evidence that Ashkenazi have higher average IQ is complete bunk because the studies were only representative of a small sub group in private schools. However, there might be a higher incidence of high intelligence to compensate for the inevitable higher rate of idiocy resulting from inbreeding. The lie about white rural people inbreeding is not worth discussing. Islam suffers the most inbreeding besides the Jews, with the Third World leading the pack with low average IQ among the poorest, but that is off topic.
I am interested in the question of what became of the surviving Punic settlers and merchants of the Western Mediterranean after the destruction of Carthage. Cartagena and Gadir were not wiped out and survived. Since St. Augustine was from North Africa and repented from a very lustful and sinful life I am inclined to suspect that many converted to Christianity, but that was long after the fall. If Stoicism reveals anything common among Punic folks one might suspect that many of them felt that they had much to be forgiven, if some remnant of their dreadful religion persisted. Having no actual information I feel free to offer my own hypothetical explanation for the fate of some of these displaced persons.
As previously noted there is much in common in the various Semitic cultures of the Mediterranean. Syrian polytheism was similar to the Punic beliefs. The chief god was Baal. The chief goddess was Estarte They had a child, Melcart (Adonis) who was sacrificed every spring so the world could be reborn. The gods even made the local river in Lebanon run red every spring. It was from the spring rains, and it was red clay, not blood, but you get the picture.
Ritual human sacrifice was built into the Punic religion. I am not aware of a culture which practiced ritual human sacrifice that ever developed complex written literature. In fact it is quite the opposite, with dreadful stories in Greek myth and Roman history relating to the subject serving as examples of how much better off they were at the time of the telling, when one was no longer likely to be the next victim. In the Bible the story is about how and why the Israelites stopped doing that kind of thing but their evil neighbors never did. Best keep clear of those guys. It is safe to conclude that the zeitgeist of such a society is not conducive to the kind of creative thinking that allows one to indulge in writing stage plays, discussing philosophy, or telling the history of real events without fear of being whacked by the local mystery cult gang. Perhaps that explains how a Hellenized Punic Zeno could exist but no Punic literature exists.
Modern conspiracy theorists have done much to expose the images used to represent the extinct Semitic pagan cults. Baal is represented by a horned bull and Estartate by an Owl. The Owl represents a bird of prey and has spooky eyes. It is intended to invoke fear in the victim, an infant or young child. The bull represents power for the sake of power. Earlier I called the Carthaginians pious. It was a very dark and alien form of piety requiring the ultimate sacrifice from the believer. It was certainly a dire time that drove so many sacrifices during the final siege of the city, but they did it occasionally anyway. I wonder if in normal times substitutes were permitted, a slave baby perhaps. Abraham substituted a lamb for his son, after all. Many people believe in the existence of a Satanic conspiracy as revealed by the strange occult practices of some of the super rich. People have to wonder. Is that all they do? Is John Podesta’s horrid art collection merely the tip of the iceberg?
The question I have that relates to this essay is: to what extent if any did Punic religion, what we think of as devil worship, survive the Dark Ages? Obviously some ideas did survive or else we would have nothing to discuss, but is it a new revival be the demented rich, live action role playing, or has it been there all along? If it exists, how did it survive or re-enter Western society?
The most common answer is that occult practices and ideas, excluding simple heathen witchcraft, came from the East during the time of the Crusades with the Templars and with the return of Jews to the West. Secrete Masonic orders were the survivors of the Templars. Masons built temples, churches. Jews practiced a form of secretive magic known as Cabala. Both were often accused of Satanic practices.
After the Reformation there was the so called Enlightenment, the revival of the study of philosophy, which also resulted in the birth of a new kind of secret society represented by the Illuminati and the Jacobins, both of which practiced explicit atheism to the extent of being anti-religious. Both required an extreme level of amorality at the leadership level. Even Karl Marx credited them as the precursors of his Communism and a model for secret revolutionary organization. Once the Communists achieved power in Russia they practiced extreme cruelty and mass murder on a scale only seen during the ancient Jewish revolts against the Greeks and Romans, or by Islamists during the Dark Ages and the Middle Ages, among other things which demonstrate total amorality. Also, Marx as well as most of the Bolsheviks were ethnically Jewish, as well as atheists. So was Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Illuminati, a coincidence? Simply an artifact of the intensity of their fanaticism? Not even Hitler’s forces could approach their body count throughout the Twentieth Century.
Obviously, some people point to Marxists as closet Satanists. I think that is a stretch, but they were and are anti-Western, anti-White, anti-Christian and extremely hate filled. The explanation that they were part of a greater Zionist conspiracy is a little too simple, but both Zionists and Communists share a common hatred of the West. Communists in the Soviet Union got around to murdering plenty of Jews too, especially other Jewish Communists, but that can be written off as infighting. Many Jewish Trotskyites escaped to the West and were readmitted to the Soviet cause after Stalin’s passing. The Zionist bankers in the West who lent money to Trotsky and Lenin were laughed at as useful idiots. The fact that the Zionist plans for Israel succeeded eventually could be the result of good planning, but not over generations, that is more like persistence. How could anyone have guessed how successful at world war and mass murder and societal destruction the Soviets would turn out to be? That kind of foresight is not possible. None of which explains the persistence of the original Jacobin ideas among the Gentile super rich and the fact that they include far more kinds of people than just wealthy Zionists and Communist Jews. The persistence of the original conspiracy from the time of the Jacobins and the French Revolution is offered as an explanation.
Instead of postulating a secret conspiracy at the upper level of society and government, I am more willing to believe in what I can see around me, a convergence of purposes and goals of the corporate globalists and the Marxist internationalists including the capture by various like minded factions in multiple big corporations, intelligence, national police forces, the foreign services, a faction in the military, and the entire court system. Many of the particular things usually pointed to by conspiracy theorists are obviously true, but the objectives of the cabal are not secrete. They trumpet their purpose from the rooftops, the moral subversion of society, economic havoc, confiscation and redistribution, and mass population replacement with low IQ hostile foreigners. This is an ideological mass movement run amok.
It is presided over by a super wealthy corporate elite of mostly leftist Jews in the mass media at all levels. It is promoted by an irrational and increasingly hysterical mob of leftist pseudo intellectuals in all levels of education. Perhaps all the conspiracy theories of the dissident Right are correct from the Birchers to the Altright. Whatever the answer, if it is a secret conspiracy there are still plenty of open and notorious conspiracies against our liberty and way of life to confront, and they all seem to be require the same strategy and tactics, until we control enough power to dig further for the hidden power behind the public front.